Georgikon Conference, Keszthely, Hungary, 21-22 September 2006.


Strawberry growing in different nutrient levels in a pot experiment

Szilvia M. Deák1 (deaksz freemail.hu) - Orsolya Seresné Sallai1 - György Füleky2

1 National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control

2 Szent István University of Gödöllő



Introduction

Strawberry plants need a good soil nutrient supply. Under non-satisfactory conditions the different varieties do not produce their genetic potential (Hochmuth, G. at al. 1994). Strawberry is grown in numerous places in the world and the question of optimal nutrition is one of main concerns. Mainly the nitrate leaching could make serious environmental problems. A large amount of nitrogen nutrient in the soil make the plants more sensitive to the diseases, deteriorates the quality of the fruits and the keeping quality. The less-than-optimal nitrogen causes weaker growing and less fruit production. (Neuweiler, 1996). The conclusion of a three years period experiment in Canada was that large nitrogen treatment does not produce significantly higher amount of fruit (Lamarre és Lareau, 1993).

Three strawberry varieties were grown in our pot experiment at four different nutrient levels on three soil types to determine the optimal nutrition. We observed vegetative and generative parameters on the plants and collected soil and plant samples for chemical analysis.

The results of the investigation were that the nitrogen level was too small, and a significant amount of phosphorus and potassium remained in the soil.


Materials and Methods

This work shows results of the second year for a two year’s pot experiment. Both plants and soil samples were examined. The pots contained brown forest soil with clay illuviation from Pölöske.

In the experiment we applied four nutrient treatments, three mineral and one organic fertilizer (Table 1.), in three different soil types and used three strawberry varieties: ‘Elsanta’, ‘Pegasus’ and ‘Spadeka’. The response was measured in soil and plant samples. We observed vegetative and generative parameters on the plants: start of vegetation, beginning of flowering, end of the flowering, start of the ripening, end of the ripening and quantity of the fruit.

We finally collected soil samples for chemical analysis. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content were measured in the soil samples. Measurements were made at Szent István University in Gödöllő, Department of Soils Science and Agricultural Chemistry.

Measurements were evaluated using the ANOVA algorithm.


  1. table. The parameters of the soil from Pölöske

mineral N mg/kg

AL-P2O5

mg/kg

AL-K2O

mg/kg

CaCO3 %

KA

pHKCl

Humus %

1,50

567

315

2,38

55,5

6,87

4,67



2. table. Level of treatments and nutrient content

Numbers of treatments

nutrients / pot (gramm)

nutrient (kg/ha)

treatment 1.:

N:

0,2025

45

P2O5:

0,054

12

K2O:

0,2475

55

treatment 2.:

N:

0,405

90

P2O5:

0,108

24

K2O:

0,4725

105

treatment 3.:

N:

0,6075

135

P2O5:

0,162

36

K2O:

0,675

150

treatment 4.:

Organic fertilizer, 30 t/ha

N:

0,77

-

P2O5:

1,27

-

K2O:

1,89

-





Results

Fenological phase


In the case of the fenological phases − such as start of the vegetation (Fig. 1.), beginning and end of the flowering (Fig. 2.), end of the ripening and the period of the ripening (fig. 3.) − in most of the cases there were significant differences among the varieties, but not among the nutrient treatments.

Measuring the quantity of fruit there were significant differences among the varieties but not among the nutrient treatments such as the above mentioned parameters (Fig. 4.) ‘Spadeka’ had the smallest fruit yield in the treatment 2., and the ‘Pegasus’ had the most amount of fruit in the treatment 3.

Nutrient content in the pots


The measured nitrogen quantity was negligibly small in all cases. The plants had used the whole amount of nitrogen in all the treatments till the end of the second vegetation period, as the calculated nutrient balances show.

As concerns the phosphorus content, we found a significant difference among the treatments at a level of 0,1 %. The variety effect was only significant at 5 % level (Fig. 5.).

At the case of potassium the treatments did not produce any significant differences but among the varieties’s soils we found 10 % significant differences (Fig. 6).



Conclusions




References



Hochmuth, G – Albregts, E. (1994.): Fertilisation of Strawberries in Florida, Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, http:\\edis.ifas.ufl.edu

Lamarre, M. – Lareau, M. J. (1993): Fertilisation and Irrigation of Day-neutral Strawberries, ISHS Acta Horticulturae 348., II. International Strawberry Symposium

Muramoto, J. – Gliessman, S. R. – Schmida, D. – Stephens,

Neuweiler, R. (1996.): Nitrogen fertilisation in integrated outdoor strawberry production, ISHS Acta Horticulturae 439., III. International Strawberry Symposium

Seresné Sallai O. (2006): A szamóca tápanyagellátása, Corvinus Egyetem, Kertészettudományi Kar, szakdolgozat



Fig. 1. Start of vegetation (2005)

Fig. 2. Flowering period (2005)

Fig. 3. Ripening period (2005)

Fig. 4. Quantity of fruit (2005)

Fig. 5. Quantity of P2O5 in the soil

Fig. 6. Quantity of K2O in the soil



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